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Table 4 Eligibility criteria to assess the relevance of retrieved articles at title/abstract and full-text screening stage

From: Are ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) affected by Bt proteins expressed in genetically modified insect-resistant crops? A systematic review protocol

Concept Criterion
Key elements of the review question
 Population Studies include one or several ladybird species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
 Exposure Studies involve GM crops producing one or more Cry or Vip proteins from Bt and for which there has been a regulatory approval for cultivationa (i.e., cotton, cowpea, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, soybean, sugarcane, tomato), or purified Bt proteins. The Bt protein can be administered to the ladybird directly or indirectly (i.e. using a prey feeding on plant material or diet containing purified Bt protein)
 Comparator Studies include a comparator to which the Bt plant or the Bt protein is compared (i.e. non-Bt plant or plant material/tissue in the case of plant studies, or a negative control in the case of studies with purified Bt proteins)
 Outcome Studies report lethal (mortality or survival) and/or sub-lethal endpoints (e.g. growth, development, reproduction)
Additional concepts
 Study type The article presents original/primary data (i.e. no reviews)
 Study design Studies are performed under controlled environmental conditions [(extended) laboratory and glasshouse studies)]. Studies performed under field or semi-field conditions will not be eligible for further assessment
 Language Searches will be conducted using English terms. Identified articles written in languages other than English will be translated and further assessed for their relevance and risk-of-bias
 Time period Articles published from 1990 onwards
  1. Bt: Bacillus thuringiensis
  2. aGM Approval Database (