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Table 1 List of examples of the techniques and management approaches studied for open field tomato production and how they may influence under reduced water, nitrogen and/or phosphorus

From: What evidence exists on the effectiveness of the techniques and management approaches used to improve the productivity of field grown tomatoes under conditions of water-, nitrogen- and/or phosphorus-deficit? A systematic map protocol

Irrigation (i.e.) Drip irrigation, deficit irrigation, partial root-zone drying, subsurface irrigation Volume and frequency of irrigation; water saving by exposed periods of water stress; evaporation of soil surface water
Fertilization Mineral/organic Plant nutrient assimilation rate
Soil/foliar application Accessibility of nutrients for plant use
Granular/liquid (i.e. fertigation) Accessibility of nutrients for plant use; efficiency on time of application
Plantation density Radiation interception; soil evapotranspiration; plant development
No-till/reduced tillage Soil erosion; N leaching; soil structure and moisture
Legume cover crop N release; reduce potentials for soil erosion
Soil amendments (i.e.) Compost, peat, manure, vermiculite, biochar, clay Soil physical–chemical properties; water retention in soil; provision and/or availability of plant nutrients
Biostimulants and biofertilizers Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) biofertilizers Provision and/or availability of primary plant nutrients; nutrient uptake by plants
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation Symbiosis with plants; macro- and micro-nutrient uptake by plants
Molecular biostimulants (i.e. protein hydrolysate) Regulation of stress-related responses
Plant extracts Tolerance to abiotic stress (tolerance to drought); plant growth promotion; influence on root/microbe interactions
Techno-chemical Pan evaporation and tensiometer readings Planning for optimal irrigation scheduling; efficiency of water use
Petiole sap testing and tissue analysis Planning for plant nutrition requirements; efficiency of nutrient applications
Grafting Use of plant rootstocks resistant to abiotic stressors; tolerance to water- and nutrient- deficit
Mulching Soil temperature and moisture; canopy-air temperature differential; soil quality and fertility; weed management control
Anti-transpirants Leaf transpiration; plant water retention
Controlled/slow-release fertiliser NPK accumulation and retention in soil; nutrient uptake by plants
Breeding and genetics Cultivar breeding Tolerant cultivars to abiotic stress (water and nutrient deficiencies)
Genetic modification (GM) Genetically modified tomato varieties with abiotic tolerant traits (drought and nutrient deficiency)
Computational Precision agriculture Fertilization/irrigation dosage; soil erosion; N leaching
Decision models Planning for optimal irrigation/fertilization scheduling; irrigation/fertilization dosage