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TableĀ 2 Guidance for assessing risk of selection bias at different study designs

From: What are the effects of control of mosquitoes and other nematoceran Diptera using the microbial agent Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems? A systematic review protocol

Study design Treatment and control areas Randomisation of treatment allocation Risk of selection bias
BA Treatment and control in same area N/A Low
CI Independent groups (spatially independent replicated controls and exposure areas) Yes Probably low/probably high
No High/probably high
Unclear Unclear
Matched pairs (one control and one exposure area in each replicate) Yes, within pairs Low
No Probably high
Unclear Unclear
BACI Independent groups or matched pairs Yes or No Low/probably low