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Table 1 Mapping 10 themes taken from the final EFFI report to NBS actions

From: How are nature based solutions contributing to priority societal challenges surrounding human well-being in the United Kingdom: a systematic map protocol

Research themes NBS actions
Land and marine use Reduced impact of natural disasters e.g. increased flood regulation via restored/created/increased lakes or wetlands in river‐basins, in coastal systems to protect against tidal storms and sea level rises. Create, enlarge, connect and improve green and blue infrastructure to enhance ecosystem services
Climate change Carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil to enhance climate resilience
Economics of resource use Natural capital accounting. Net additional jobs in the green sector fuelled by new green investments
Soils Enhanced soil diversity, quality and health
Biodiversity Greater ecological connectivity, rewilding resulting in reduced spread of pests and alien species
Environmental policy Synergies and trade‐offs within and across policy sectors when implementing NBS actions
Human health Wide range of co‐benefits from green infrastructure including microclimate regulation through shading, improved air quality through enhanced deposition, mitigation of chemical pollution especially in aquatic systems, habitat and food provision for biodiversity and associated cultural services, noise shielding, and recreation, reduction in chronic stress and stress‐related diseases. Potential co-harms from wildlife and vector bore infection diseases
Technology Equipment to monitor environmental impact of actions. Biomimicry and industrial design
Circular economy Using nature to save energy, conserve water, reduce infrastructure costs, boost important biodiversity, and increase the health and wellbeing of citizens, enhance use and recycling of waste
International focus Improved natural resource use across international boundaries, improved transboundary relationships