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Table 1 Glossary of key concepts

From: Bridging Indigenous and science-based knowledge in coastal and marine research, monitoring, and management in Canada

TermDefinition
Knowledge systemMade up of agents, practices, routines, and institutions that organize the production, validation, transfer, and use of knowledge [67, 68]
Indigenous knowledge systemsA “cumulative body of knowledge, practices, and beliefs, evolving and governed by adaptive processes and handed down and across (through) generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment” [69]a
Science-based knowledge systemsWith roots in Greek philosophy and the Renaissance, are a fluid and evolving body of knowledge that tends to favor objectivity and reductionism [70]
Bridging knowledge systemsA process that maintains the integrity of each respective knowledge system while enabling the reciprocal exchange of understanding for mutual learning [7, 8]. It is similar to [42] who refer to “integrative approaches” in order to capture the dynamic and co-evolving process of knowledge co-production associated with the intersection of Indigenous and science-based knowledge systems
  1. aRef. [71] draws attention to the danger of describing Indigenous Knowledge systems as ‘cumulative’ as it suggests that it improves only through addition rather than also through the process of revision