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Table 3 Categories and subcategories of conservation interventions

From: Social and ecological outcomes of conservation interventions in tropical coastal marine ecosystems: a systematic map protocol

Intervention categoryIntervention definitionIntervention subcategory
1. Land/Water ManagementActions directly managing or restoring sites, ecosystems and the wider environment1a. Site/Area Stewardship
1b. Restoration
1c. Ecosystem & Natural Process Management
2. Species ManagementActions directly managing or restoring specific species or taxonomic groups2a. Habitat (seagrass, mangroves, coral reef) management
2b. Fisheries management
2c. Species stewardship
2d. Species Reintroduction and Translocation
2e. Ex-Situ Conservation
3. Awareness RaisingActions making people aware of key issues and/or feeling desired emotions, attitudes, opinion designed lead to behavior change3a. Outreach & Communications
3b. Protests & Civil Disobedience
3c. Political Lobbying and Campaigning
4. Enforcement & ProsecutionActions monitoring and enforcing compliance with existing laws and policies (including customary) at all levels to deter threats or compel conservation action4a. Monitoring/Detection
4b. Criminal Prosecution & Conviction
4c. Non-Criminal Legal Action
4d. Customary law/rule enforcement
5. Livelihood, Economic, and other IncentivesActions using livelihood, other economic and moral incentives to directly influence attitudes and behaviors5a. Linked Enterprises & Alternative Livelihoods
5b. Consumer or producer substitution, through technology or product innovation
5c. Corporate practices and engagement
5d. Market-Based Incentives
5e. Direct Economic Incentives
5f. Social and cultural values
5 g. Agency incentives
5 h. Resource use incentives
6. Conservation Designation & PlanningActions directly protecting sites and/or species6a. Protected Area Designation &/Or Acquisition
6b. Easements & Resource Rights
6c. Land/Water Use Zoning & Designation; marine spatial planning
6d. Conservation Planning
6e. Community based planning for resource management and conservation
6f. Site Infrastructure
7. Legal & Policy FrameworksActions developing and influencing legislation, policies and voluntary standards affecting conservation7a. Laws, Regulations, & Codes
7b. Policies & Guidelines
7c. De jure property rights
8. Research & MonitoringActions collecting data and transforming it into information to support conservation work8a. Basic Research & Status Monitoring
8b. Evaluation, Effectiveness Measures, & Learning
9. Education & TrainingActions enhancing the knowledge and skills of specific individuals9a. Formal education
9b. Informal education
9c. Training
10. Institutional/organizational developmentActions creating the formal institutions and organizations needed to support conservation work10a. Internal Organizational Management & Administration
10b. External Organizational Development & Support
10c. Alliance & Partnership Development
10d. Financing Conservation
  1. Intervention framework adapted from IUCN CMP Actions Classification v2.0 framework