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Table 1 Eligibility criteria for Map 1

From: What is the research evidence for antibiotic resistance exposure and transmission to humans from the environment? A systematic map protocol

  Inclusion Exclusion Justification
Population Adults, children Non-humans (e.g. animals, plants) Evidence of ARB transmission to humans from the environment is of interest to relevant stakeholders
Exposure sources Meat from wild animals, including shellfish (bivalve molluscs, lobster, crab, etc.), fin fish, game; plants that are consumed raw (including salad, fruit etc.) Meat and animal products from commercially produced animals including fish, shellfish (including shrimp), poultry (including pheasants), pigs, cows, sheep etc., and products including honey, milk, eggs;
Plants that are always consumed cooked (including grains etc.)
While food is produced in the environment, practices during commercial production and processing (e.g. antibiotic use, through poor hygiene in preparation and handling of food) might be the sources of ARB, rather than from the environment
Wild animals consumed for their meat are of interest as sources of AMR are more likely to be from the environment. Bivalve molluscs are grown in the environment and are filter-feeders, concentrating contaminants in the environment, and this meat is typically eaten raw or lightly cooked. Shrimp are intensively raised in some parts of the world, and antibiotic usage is poorly regulated. Likewise, pheasants are reared on high levels of antibiotics and then released into the environment [46]
Plants consumed raw pose are more likely to result in transmission of ARB from plants to humans
Water in the environment (including water used in crop irrigation; aquaculture; ambient surface waters used for recreation; drinking water and wastewater from domestic and industrial sources) Water from chlorinated swimming pools and spas Water in swimming pools and spas are treated to remove pathogenic microorganisms, and are not considered the environment
Soil including that conditioned with faecal matter (sludge/slurry/manure etc. or irrigated with waste water). Exposure may be through activities such as farming, gardening, leisure activities such as playing etc.) N/A  
Outdoor air (may contain dust, water droplets etc.) Studies that have collected air from indoor environments ARB in outdoor environment are more likely to be from natural sources
Contact with animals or their faeces Pets, companion animals and commercially produced livestock ARB in/on wild animals are more likely to be from the environment. Those on pets, companion animals and commercially produced animals might be due to antimicrobial usage during animal rearing, for example raw food diet in companion animals is associated with carriage of AMR bacteria [47]. Exposure and transmission from pets, companion animals and commercially produced livestock are not of specific interest to relevant stakeholders
Exposure routes Consumption/ingestion; Inhalation;
Direct contact
  
Outcomes Mortality caused by infection with ARB or bacteria harbouring ARG(s);
Infection with ARB or bacteria harbouring ARG(s);
Colonisation by ARB or bacteria harbouring ARG(s);
Estimated or measured risk of exposure to ARB or bacteria harbouring ARG(s)
Infections caused by fungi, parasites or viruses While fungal, parasitic and viral infections resistant to antimicrobials are of interest to relevant stakeholders, ARB are a priority for regulators
Resource constraints mean other types of AMR organisms will not be included
  1. ARB antibiotic resistant bacteria, ARG antibiotic resistance gene, AMR antimicrobial resistance