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Table 2 Systematic map inclusion and exclusion criteria, and PICO definitions for the three-stage screening process

From: Outcomes of wildlife translocations in protected areas: what is the type and extent of existing evidence? A systematic map protocol

Criteria Description PICO definition(s)
Inclusion criteria
 Eligible population Any terrestrial, marine, or aquatic plant or animal species of wild or captive source IN: Wild—free-ranging species from natural environments; not domesticated or cultivated
Captive—species born, bred, or cultivated in captive setting (e.g. zoos, nurseries)
 Eligible intervention Conservation-based translocation operations (i.e. reintroduction, supplementation and introduction) (see Table 1 for definitions) IN: Conservation-based interventions—where the aim is improving viability and persistence of translocated population. Regarding introduction, this will also include ecological replacement and assisted migration [14]
 Eligible comparator Studies will not be required stricto sensu to have a comparator present NA
 Eligible outcomes All relevant biological outcomes related to the subject population, including space use, demography, survival, reproduction, trophic, behaviour, genetics, and physiology IN: For full description and definitions (cf. Table 3)
Exclusion criteria
 Ineligible population Invasive species or population historically introduced for hunting purposes OUT: Invasive alien species outside of its natural distribution area and that threatens biological function and diversity of native populations
Game/Hunting purposes: if transfer of species is for hunting purposes
 Ineligible intervention Non conservation-based introductions (e.g. historically introduced animals for hunting purposes or accidental introductions) OUT: Non-conservation based transfer of species—where persistence or conservation of individuals is not the motivation (e.g. sport/game hunting)
Accidental introductions: any documentation reporting on accidental invasions, pathways, and risks etc.
 Ineligible outcomes Sources not studying one of either Space use, Demography, Survival, Reproduction, Feeding, Behaviour, Genetics, Physiology OUT: Non-relevant outcomes that would not enable any interpretation of success. Trophic cascades will not be retained