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Table 6 Bias assessment framework of articles

From: Diversity of antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters and receiving water bodies and removal efficiency by treatment processes: a systematic review protocol

Bias area Study parameter Characteristic Bias assessment Bias score
Selection and performance bias: study design Sampling Detection of antibiotic type and concentration Total sample size > 10 (Temporal or spatial) 10
Total sample size < 10 (Temporal or spatial) 5
A single sample volume > 100 cc 10
A single sample volume < 100 cc 5
Replication of samples 10
No-replication of samples 5
Assessment bias: measurement of outcome Experimental design Plant type Full or pilot experiments with real wastewater 10
Bench scale experiments with synthetic solution 5
Antibiotic extraction method Solid phase extraction 10
Liquid–liquid extraction 5
Antibiotic detection device Gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrophotometry 10
Gas or liquid chromatography 5
Bias linked to clarity and publication bias Data analysis Statistical analyses Using and describing the statistical data analysis method Yes [10]
No [5]
Clarity of the presentation of data quality/quantity or statistical analysis Yes [10]
No [5]
Other biases   Detection bias Having significant differences in the results in before and after treatment process Yes [10]
No [5]
Attrition bias Same sample size in before and after treatment process Yes [10]
No [5]
Same number of samples in before and after treatment process Yes [10]
No [5]