Skip to main content

Table 1 Ecotechnologies identified as recovering carbon (C), energy (E), phosphorus (P) and/or nitrogen (N) (n = 344). Studies including both recovery and reuse are not presented (n = 22)

From: What evidence exists on ecotechnologies for recycling carbon and nutrients from domestic wastewater? A systematic map

Ecotechnology C E P N C & E P & N E & P E & N C & P E, P & N C, P & N E, C & P E, C, P & N Total
Microalgae cultivation       24     43     67
Combination   8 7    8 4 3 1 21 2   3 57
Anaerobic digestion   33          1   2 36
Struvite precipitation    1    27         28
Adsorption    14 4   3         21
Other 2 3 1 2   7      3   1 19
Microbial fuel cell   16   1     1       18
Anaerobic bioreactors   14         1     15
Pyrolysis 2 4    4        2 2 14
Composting            10    10
P precipitationa    9            9
Membrane filtration 1   1 2   5         9
Microbial electrolysis cell   8             8
Vermicomposting            7    7
Biomass productionb       1     3     4
Incineration   3      1        4
Ammonia stripping     4           4
Other thermal treatment   2          1    3
Hydrothermal carbonization 1       1    1     3
Electrodialysis    2            2
Torrefaction   2             2
Leaching    2            2
Hydrothermal liquefaction   1             1
Macroalgae cultivation       1         1
Total 6 94 37 13 4 76 6 4 1 69 24 2 8 344
  1. aOther than struvite
  2. bDirectly in substrate, other than algae