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Table 2 Categories, descriptions and codes of NBS actions or interventions, utilised to code evidence, based on Cohen-Shacham et al. [1]

From: How are nature-based solutions contributing to priority societal challenges surrounding human well-being in the United Kingdom: a systematic map

NBS action or intervention type Description Code
Ecosystem restoration approaches, focus on nature Ecological restoration involving minimal intervention other than planting NBS01
Ecological engineering involving significant human intervention e.g. plant trees to stabilise river banks NBS02
Issue-specific ecosystem-related approaches, focus on humans Ecosystem-based adaptation to any issue NBS03
Ecosystem-based mitigation to any issue NBS04
Infrastructure-related approaches Natural infrastructure e.g. river, natural forest (minimal human intervention) NBS05
Green engineered infrastructure e.g. green rooms, green walls, green roofs, parks NBS06
Blue engineered infrastructure e.g. ponds or wetlands for flood mitigation NBS07
Mixed natural/green/blue infrastructure NBS08
Ecosystem-based management approaches Integrated man-modified and natural landscape management e.g. agricultural and semi-wild lands NBS09
Integrated coastal zone management e.g. coast and estuaries NBS10
Integrated water resources management e.g. plant trees or place to reduce flow from source to sea NBS11
Ecosystem protection approaches Area-based conservation approaches including protected area management NBS12