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Table 9 Associations between moderators and effect sizes for the subset of studies for immediate fish mortality

From: What are the relative risks of mortality and injury for fish during downstream passage at hydroelectric dams in temperate regions? A systematic review

Moderator(s)AICcQEQM
(A) All intervention types (k = 160)
 Null model932.07
 Intervention type919.2911,376.37 (p < 0.0001)14.27 (p = 0.007)
(B) Turbines (k = 118)
 Null model724.52
 Site type + life stage715.037408.31 (p < 0.0001)7.60 (p = 0.055)
 Site type717.757483.03 (p < 0.0001)5.38 (p = 0.020)
 Life stage722.017974.86 (p < 0.0001)1.23 (p = 0.540)
(C) Turbine field studies (k = 69)
 Null model363.78
 Turbine type356.22933.48 (p < 0.0001)8.89 (p = 0.003)
(D) Kaplan turbines (k = 35)
 Null model77.56
 Sampling method + Source73.47152.49 (p < 0.0001)6.56 (p = 0.038)
 Source74.16360.16 (p < 0.0001)5.79 (p = 0.016)
 Sampling method77.34153.07 (p < 0.0001)0.22 (p = 0.636)
  1. k: number of data sets (i.e., effect sizes); Site type: lab or field; Life stage: Adult, Juvenile, or Mixed stages; Turbine type: Kaplan or Francis; Sampling method: recapture or telemetry methods; Source: hatchery or wild. Null model = random-effects (unmoderated) model