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Table 2 Classes of row spacing, density and total height of trees used for assigning an orchard system

From: What evidence exists on the impact of agricultural practices in fruit orchards on biodiversity? A systematic map

VariableLow-stemMiddle-stemHigh-stem
Spacing, in-row × alley (m)< 3 × 43 × 6 to 4 × 6≥ 6 × 6
Density (trees per ha)> 520320–520< 320
Height (m)< 33–5> 5