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Table 5 Comparing contents of long-term studies

From: What evidence exists on the impact of agricultural practices in fruit orchards on biodiversity? A systematic map

Publication number976295303636269783379
Duration in years191043101635
Study validity (%)37.171.7869.3566.1359.6877.42
ContinentEuropeEuropeEuropeEuropeNorth AmericaEurope
Nation, stateUkraineDenmarkGermanyFranceUSA, West VirginiaItaly
RegionEastSeveralBaden-WürttembergBourgogne-Franche-ComtéJefferson CountyApulia
Study designOn farmMonitoringMonitoringMonitoringExperimentalExperimental
Number of sitesAreaAreaAreaAreaOne site and regionOne site and region
Number of samplings per yearNot_statedNA1Not_stated22
Statistical evaluationYesYesYesYes
Species list1.1_birds3.0_flora
Treatment plan what and whenHerbicide per month
Population: description level of ISGDL2: butterflies, other mammals, slugs/snailsDL4: birdsDL4: birds; DL2: small and other mammalsDL4: batsDL4: grasses, weedsDL4: grasses, weeds
Intervention: description level of APODL2: disruption, natural enemies, insecticides broad and narrow; surface elements; landscape contextDL4: rodenticideDL3: herbicide, insecticide broad, surface elements, landscape contextDL4: bare ground; landscape context; DL3: hedgesDL4: herbicide; tillageDL4: herbicide; tillage; greencover; mowing
Comparator I (theme)Management systemRisk assessmentLife traitsHabitat (needs and types)Pest managementPest management
Comparator II (grouped)Whole systemVarious pesticidesVarious pesticides, semi-natural habitatSemi-natural habitat, orchard managed, other habitatHerbicide bare groundHerbicide bare ground greening
Comparator III (system)Organic vs. conventional
Comparator IV (sampling type)Not_statedMonitoringMonitoringMonitoringMonitoringMonitoring
Outcome I (measures)PracticeImpacts: lethality/disturbanceImpacts: life traitsDifferences in dispersalDifferences in diversity and abundanceDifferences in diversity and abundance
Outcome II (biodiversity-aspects)ConservationConservationConservationHabitat suitabilityConservationConservation
ProductionApple, plum (and berries)Agriculture in generalFruits and nuts in generalFruits and nuts in generalFruits and nuts in generalAlmond
Orchard systemUnclearValidUnclearUnclearProbably low-stemHigh-stem
  1. Display (i) of lacking metadata (bolditalic and ‘–‘) in the respective studies and (ii) of similarities (in italic) and differences between study pairs on similar populations (No. 295-3036 and No. 978-3379)