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Table 2 PICO/PECO components of the three sub-questions

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

S1. Restriction of antibiotic use S2. Treatments of liquid and solid matrices S3. Natural environment management
Populations
Anyone susceptible to receive antibiotics: animals, humans, plants Any matrix contaminated by ATBR and destined to a processing Any natural compartment contaminated by ATBR: aquatic and terrestrial environments, wildlife
Interventions (our primary objective)
Any option aimed at restricting antibiotic use Any process applied on matrices contaminated by ATBR Any management option in natural environment
OR Exposure–Impact assessment studies (other objective of our review)
To any antibiotic treatment To any pollutant To any source of contamination
Comparators
Another I/E, before I/E and/or control without I/E
Outcomes
ATBR in environment
  1. For examples, see eligibility criteria in Table 3
  2. ATBR antibiotic resistance, I/E intervention or exposure