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Table 2 PICO/PECO components of the three sub-questions

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

S1. Restriction of antibiotic useS2. Treatments of liquid and solid matricesS3. Natural environment management
Populations
Anyone susceptible to receive antibiotics: animals, humans, plantsAny matrix contaminated by ATBR and destined to a processingAny natural compartment contaminated by ATBR: aquatic and terrestrial environments, wildlife
Interventions (our primary objective)
Any option aimed at restricting antibiotic useAny process applied on matrices contaminated by ATBRAny management option in natural environment
OR Exposure–Impact assessment studies (other objective of our review)
To any antibiotic treatmentTo any pollutantTo any source of contamination
Comparators
Another I/E, before I/E and/or control without I/E
Outcomes
ATBR in environment
  1. For examples, see eligibility criteria in Table 3
  2. ATBR antibiotic resistance, I/E intervention or exposure