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Table 2 PICO/PECO components of the three sub-questions

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

S1. Restriction of antibiotic use

S2. Treatments of liquid and solid matrices

S3. Natural environment management


Anyone susceptible to receive antibiotics: animals, humans, plants

Any matrix contaminated by ATBR and destined to a processing

Any natural compartment contaminated by ATBR: aquatic and terrestrial environments, wildlife

Interventions (our primary objective)

Any option aimed at restricting antibiotic use

Any process applied on matrices contaminated by ATBR

Any management option in natural environment

OR Exposure–Impact assessment studies (other objective of our review)

To any antibiotic treatment

To any pollutant

To any source of contamination


Another I/E, before I/E and/or control without I/E


ATBR in environment

  1. For examples, see eligibility criteria in Table 3
  2. ATBR antibiotic resistance, I/E intervention or exposure