Skip to main content

Table 5 Informative and quantitative data extracted for meta-analysis

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review



Informative data


First author, year of publication, title


Study type (field or laboratory) and location (country)

Validity level according to study validity assessment

Organic waste before processing

Composition (global proportion of raw materials)

Origin: “Sludge” for municipal or pharmaceutical sewage sludge; “Effluent” for livestock manure or slurry

Animal: types of animal farming

For farming waste, if animals receive antibiotic treatments in the farm (yes, no or unknown)

Spiking or not by any contaminant (e.g. antibiotic, metal)


Treatment and conditions: temperature, pH, duration, any variation of condition

Sampling time

Time corresponding to “after treatment” (e.g. 7 days, 14 days, etc.)


ATBR marker, antibiotic family for which resistance is assessed, method (culture-based or molecular), units of measures, source of data (number of figure or table in the article)

Quantitative data




Total bacteria

Average concentration/absolute abundance and/or proportion/relative abundance Before treatment (mostly measured at initial time e.g., day 0) and After treatment (at the corresponding sampling time)