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Table 5 Informative and quantitative data extracted for meta-analysis

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

Informative data
Article—referenceFirst author, year of publication, title
StudyStudy type (field or laboratory) and location (country)
Validity level according to study validity assessment
Organic waste before processingComposition (global proportion of raw materials)
Origin: “Sludge” for municipal or pharmaceutical sewage sludge; “Effluent” for livestock manure or slurry
Animal: types of animal farming
For farming waste, if animals receive antibiotic treatments in the farm (yes, no or unknown)
Spiking or not by any contaminant (e.g. antibiotic, metal)
ProcessTreatment and conditions: temperature, pH, duration, any variation of condition
Sampling timeTime corresponding to “after treatment” (e.g. 7 days, 14 days, etc.)
OutcomesATBR marker, antibiotic family for which resistance is assessed, method (culture-based or molecular), units of measures, source of data (number of figure or table in the article)
Quantitative data
Total bacteria
Average concentration/absolute abundance and/or proportion/relative abundance Before treatment (mostly measured at initial time e.g., day 0) and After treatment (at the corresponding sampling time)