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Table 5 Informative and quantitative data extracted for meta-analysis

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

Informative data
Article—reference First author, year of publication, title
Study Study type (field or laboratory) and location (country)
Validity level according to study validity assessment
Organic waste before processing Composition (global proportion of raw materials)
Origin: “Sludge” for municipal or pharmaceutical sewage sludge; “Effluent” for livestock manure or slurry
Animal: types of animal farming
For farming waste, if animals receive antibiotic treatments in the farm (yes, no or unknown)
Spiking or not by any contaminant (e.g. antibiotic, metal)
Process Treatment and conditions: temperature, pH, duration, any variation of condition
Sampling time Time corresponding to “after treatment” (e.g. 7 days, 14 days, etc.)
Outcomes ATBR marker, antibiotic family for which resistance is assessed, method (culture-based or molecular), units of measures, source of data (number of figure or table in the article)
Quantitative data
Total bacteria
Average concentration/absolute abundance and/or proportion/relative abundance Before treatment (mostly measured at initial time e.g., day 0) and After treatment (at the corresponding sampling time)