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Table 6 Examples of how to consider results depending on ATBR outcome, measurement method and expression of results

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

How to consider resultsCulture-dependent method: ARBCulture-independent method: ARG and MGE
QualitativeATBR phenotypes of bacterial isolates
Diameter of inhibition zones
Minimal inhibitory concentrations
Presence (+) or absence (−)
Gel electrophoresis of PCR product
Partially quantitativeNumber of resistant isolates
Frequency/Proportion of resistant isolates in total isolates tested (%)
Frequency of gene detection in bacterial isolates or in environmental samples (%)
Number of reads in metagenomics analysis
Fully quantitativeConcentration of resistant isolates in environmental samples (e.g., CFU/g)
Proportion of resistant isolates in total culturable bacterial population (%)
Absolute abundance of gene copies in environmental samples (e.g., copies/g)
Relative abundance of gene copies in total microbial biomass (e.g., copies/16S rRNA copies)