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Table 6 Examples of how to consider results depending on ATBR outcome, measurement method and expression of results

From: How effective are strategies to control the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment? A systematic review

How to consider results

Culture-dependent method: ARB

Culture-independent method: ARG and MGE


ATBR phenotypes of bacterial isolates

Diameter of inhibition zones

Minimal inhibitory concentrations

Presence (+) or absence (−)

Gel electrophoresis of PCR product

Partially quantitative

Number of resistant isolates

Frequency/Proportion of resistant isolates in total isolates tested (%)

Frequency of gene detection in bacterial isolates or in environmental samples (%)

Number of reads in metagenomics analysis

Fully quantitative

Concentration of resistant isolates in environmental samples (e.g., CFU/g)

Proportion of resistant isolates in total culturable bacterial population (%)

Absolute abundance of gene copies in environmental samples (e.g., copies/g)

Relative abundance of gene copies in total microbial biomass (e.g., copies/16S rRNA copies)