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Table 1 Study validity criteria

From: Effectiveness of mycofiltration for removal of contaminants from water: a systematic review protocol

Criterion Checklist question Low validity Medium validity High validity
Study design Was there a sufficient number of replicates per experiment? Less than three replicates Three replicates More than three replicates
Risk of confounding Are confounding variables (temperature, seasons, pH of sample, pre-treatment of mycofilter) accounted for? Confounders present and/ or not accounted for At least two confounders accounted for All confounders adequately accounted for
Risk of misclassification bias Is the intervention clearly defined (i.e., fungal species used)? No clear definition Clear definition Clear definition
Risk of performance bias Is there a clear link between hypothesis and measured outcomes? No link between hypothesis and measured outcomes Clear link between some hypothesis and measured outcomes Clear link between hypothesis and measured outcomes
Risk of reporting bias Is the reported effect estimate based on selected measurements of the outcome?
Is there clarity of measured outcomes before vs after intervention (i.e. no missing data)?
Effect estimate is based on some of the measured outcomes (subgroup of < 50% of all measured outcomes)
Measured outcomes before vs after, not adequately stated
Effect estimate is based on some of the measured outcomes (subgroup of 50% of all measured outcomes)
Measured outcomes before vs after, clear enough
Effect estimate is based on all of the measured outcomes
Measured outcomes before vs after, clearly and adequately stated
Risk of analysis bias Is there sufficient description of statistical analysis and results? No clear/ appropriate description of statistical analysis and results Clear enough description of statistical analysis and results Clear and appropriate description of statistical analysis and results
  1. This table should appear in “Study validity assessment” section