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Table 1 Components of the systematic map

From: Existing evidence on the outcomes of wildlife translocations in protected areas: a systematic map

Population (P) All plant and animal species of wild or captive source
Intervention (I) Type of interventions Definition of interventions Conservation aim of intervention
  Introduction This refers to the intentional manual transfer/movement and release of an organism outside of its indigenous range/historical distribution [13] (i) Assisted migration: this refers to the intentional manual transfer/movement and release outside of the indigenous range, to primarily avoid extinction of populations of the focal species [13] This occurs if the persistence of a species in its indigenous range is threatened from current or future impacts than at alternative sites [13]
(ii) Ecological replacement: this refers to the intentional manual transfer/movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range/historical distribution, to perform a specific ecological function [13] This is used to re-establish an ecological function lost through extinction; involving the most suitable existing sub-species, or a close relative of the extinct species [13]
Reintroduction This refers to the intentional manual transfer/movement and release of an organism inside its indigenous range/historical distribution but from which it has disappeared or become extinct locally, regionally, or otherwise. (No conspecifics are present in situ) [13] The conservation aim is to re-establish a viable population of the focal species within its historical range [13]
Supplementation This refers to the intentional manual transfer/movement and release of an organism into the existing distribution of a population of conspecifics [13] The aim is to enhance and reinforce population viability e.g. by increasing population size, or by increasing genetic diversity [13]
Comparator (C) No comparator will be required stricto sensu. Although in certain cases the study design may translate as a time series comparison (before and after translocation)
Outcomes (O) Outcome category Outcome description
  Space use Studies measuring all movement/dispersal of translocated individuals. This will include notably home range measurements, or Euclidean distance travelled
Demography Studies outlining the changes in number of individuals, males/females, of the translocated population i.e. population growth overtime
Survival Studies illustrating precisely the proportion of individuals alive or level of mortality since translocation
Reproduction Any impacts on reproduction, expressed by number of young born since translocation, or specifically the survival rate of offspring
Feeding All impacts specifically on diet and feeding of translocated individuals. (Nb. cascade effects will not be included as an outcome)
Behaviour Studies measuring changes in terms of communication (e.g. vocal), social structure, or anti-predator behaviour i.e. stress/vigilance levels, of translocated individuals
Behaviour Studies measuring changes in terms of communication (e.g. vocal), social structure, or anti-predator behaviour i.e. stress/vigilance levels, of translocated individuals
Physiology All biological or physiological impacts measured at the molecular, cellular or organic level (e.g. hormone activity)
Context (C)a Type of protected areas Definitions of protected areas
  Strict reserves for the protection of nature (Ia) Areas set aside to strictly protect biodiversity where human visitation, use, and impacts are strongly limited [31]
Wilderness areas (Ib) Areas that are largely unmodified, retaining their natural character, and free of inappropriate or excessive human use or presence [31]
National Parks (II) Protected areas of large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes [31]
Natural monuments (III) Protected areas set aside to protect a specific natural feature in the landscape [31]
Management areas (IV) Specific protected areas that aim to safeguard a particular species or habitat. Consequently, the management reflects this priority [31]
Protected landscapes (V) A protected area where humans and nature together over time have produced an area of significant ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value [31]
Protected areas with sustainable use of natural resources (VI) Protected areas which conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management and use [31]
  1. aConcerning context, this will equate to all interventions from, to, or within these types of protected areas