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Table 2 Inclusion/exclusion criteria for the three-stage screening process

From: Existing evidence on the outcomes of wildlife translocations in protected areas: a systematic map

Eligible population(s) All terrestrial, marine, or aquatic plant or animal populations from any country across the globe that were of wild or captive source. Wild populations included any free-ranging species from natural environments; not domesticated or cultivated. Captive populations included species born in captive setting (e.g. zoos, nurseries, or breeding pens)
Eligible intervention(s) All conservation-based translocation interventions occurring either (1) between two different protected areas; (2) from a non-protected area to a protected area; (3) from a protected area to a non-protected; or (4) within the same protected area where the aim is improving the viability and persistence of the translocated population (i.e. reintroduction, supplementation, or assisted migration (see Table 1 for definitions). Ecological replacement was also included as an eligible intervention where the goal is to re-establish an ecological function lost through extinction, which involved the translocation of the most suitable existing sub-species, or a close relative of the extinct species
Eligible comparator(s) With regard to a systematic map, comparator was not a screening criterion
Eligible outcome(s) Any outcome-related effects on the translocated populations. This included (1) Space use i.e. studies measuring all movement/dispersal of translocated individuals, notably home range measurements or Euclidean distance travelled. (2) Demography i.e. studies outlining the changes in number of individuals (males and/or females) of the translocated population. (3) Survival i.e. studies illustrating precisely the proportion of individuals alive or level of mortality since translocation. (4) Reproduction i.e. number of young born since translocation, or specifically the survival rate of offspring. (5) Feeding i.e. all effects specifically on diet and feeding of translocated individuals. (6) Behaviour i.e. studies measuring changes in terms of communication (e.g. vocal), social structure, or anti-predator behaviour e.g. stress/vigilance levels, of translocated individuals. (7) Genetics i.e. studies relating to the genetic structure of the translocated species. Finally, (8) Physiology i.e. biological or physiological impacts measured at the molecular, cellular or organic level of translocated population (e.g. hormone activity)