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Table 5 Total number of studies, experimental studies, and observational studies by exposure category. Vertical bars separate simultaneous exposure to several categories

From: Evidence on the impacts of chemicals arising from human activity on tropical reef-building corals; a systematic map

Exposure category Total Experimental Observational
Undefined pollutants 1986 (25%) 41 (1.1%) 1945 (47.5%)
Nutrient 2255 (28.4%) 1645 (42.8%) 610 (14.9%)
Eutrophication 168 (2.1%) 7 (0.2%) 161 (3.9%)
Metal 896 (11.3%) 497 (12.9%) 399 (9.8%)
Hydrocarbon 608 (7.7%) 401 (10.4%) 207 (5.1%)
Pesticide 416 (5.2%) 396 (10.3%) 20 (0.5%)
UV filter 209 (2.6%) 184 (4.8%) 25 (0.6%)
Microplastic 134 (1.7%) 132 (3.4%) 2 (0%)
Pharmaceutical 112 (1.4%) 112 (2.9%)  
Dispersant 61 (0.8%) 61 (1.6%)  
Detergent 21 (0.3%) 21 (0.5%)  
Nanoparticle 15 (0.2%) 15 (0.4%)  
Other 114 (1.4%) 102 (2.7%) 12 (0.3%)
Metal | Nutrient 290 (3.7%) 44 (1.1%) 246 (6%)
Metal | Pesticide 15 (0.2%) 15 (0.4%)  
Metal | Hydrocarbon 15 (0.2%) 3 (0.1%) 12 (0.3%)
Metal | Other 5 (0.1%)   5 (0.1%)
Metal | Pharmaceutical 1 (0%) 1 (0%)  
Hydrocarbon | Dispersant 166 (2.1%) 166 (4.3%)  
Hydrocarbon | Other 90 (1.1%)   90 (2.2%)
Hydrocarbon | Nutrient 15 (0.2%) 1 (0%) 14 (0.3%)
Hydrocarbon | Pharmaceutical 1 (0%) 1 (0%)  
Nutrient | Hydrocarbon | Metal 192 (2.4%)   192 (4.7%)
Pharmaceutical | Nutrient | Metal 19 (0.2%)   19 (0.5%)
Nutrient | Hydrocarbon | Other 6 (0.1%)   6 (0.1%)
Nutrient | Hydrocarbon | Pesticide 2 (0%)   2 (0%)
Hydrocarbon | Pesticide | Other 1 (0%)   1 (0%)
Nutrient | Hydrocarbon | Metal | Other 61 (0.8%)   61 (1.5%)
Hydrocarbon | Pesticide | Metal | Other 34 (0.4%)   34 (0.8%)
Nutrient | Pesticide | Detergent | Hydrocarbon 18 (0.2%)   18 (0.4%)
UV filter | Hydrocarbon | Pharmaceutical | Other 11 (0.1%)   11 (0.3%)
Total 7937   3845   4092