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Table 1 Ecological context variables extracted from the studies included in the systematic map database during data coding

From: Location of studies and evidence of effects of herbivory on Arctic vegetation: a systematic map

Ecological context group Variable Variable description Source (reference)
Geographic space Elevationb Elevation (meters above sea level) P, D [91]
Distance_to_treeline Distance (km) to the southern border of Arctic subzone E. Negative numbers correspond to locations to the south of this border D [92]
Distance_from_coast Distance from the coast (km) D [coastline used to create 92]
Bioclimatic_zone Bioclimatic zone A to E, or outside the Arctic, as defined by the bioclimatic zonation D [92]
Soil_typeb Soil type class, according to the Digital Soil Map of the World D [39]
Permafrost Presence and type of permafrost: continuous, discontinuous, sporadic, isolated patches D [38]
Disturbance Disturbance that occurs in the study system and could impact the results and is discussed by the authors, e.g., fire, flooding, ice/winter damage, pollution C
Climate space Mean_annual_temperaturec BIO1 extracted from WorldClim P, D [93]
Max_temperature_of_warmest_monthc BIO5 extracted from WorldClim D [93]
Temperature_annual_rangec BIO7 extracted from WorldClim D [93]
Temperature_seasonalityc BIO4 extracted from WorldClim D [93]
Mean_annual_precipitationc BIO12 extracted from WorldClim P, D [93]
Growing_season_length Duration of growing season (days, mean during 1982–2014) D [94]
Vegetation_greenness Cumulative daily growing season NDVI, mean during 1982–2014 D [94]
Climate change space Extent_of_recent_warming Change in mean temperature from period 1951–1980 to period 2000–2020 (°C) D [95, 96]
Extent_of_recent_greening Extent of last decades (1982–2014) change in cumulative daily growing season NDVI (% per decade) D [94]
Extent_of_recent_growing_season_change Extent of last decades (1982–2014) change in growing season length (days per decade) D [94]
Food web space Herbivore_species_richness Species richness of vertebrate herbivores D [37]
Herbivore_functional_diversity Functional diversity of vertebrate herbivores D [37]
Herbivore_phylogenetic_diversitya Phylogenetic diversity of vertebrate herbivores D [37]
Food_web_context_other_herbivores Is the presence of other herbivores in the study area described? C
Food_web_context_predators Is the presence of predators in the study area described? C
Human space Human_densitya Human population density (per km2, in 2015) D [40]
Human_footprinta Cumulative human pressure on the environment in 2009, (per km2). Combines measures of built-up environments, population density, electric power infrastructure, crop lands, pasture lands, roads, railways, and navigable waterways D [41, 42]
Management_study_area Management status of the study area, e.g., historical, current C
Conservation_study_area Conservation status of the study area, e.g., protected area, common habitat C
Conservation_focus Is the study framed within a conservation context (i.e., conservation aims are mentioned or not)? C
  1. Values in column “source” describe where the data is extracted from: P for publication (i.e., data explicitly available in the published document), D for digital spatial data layers (i.e., data extracted from a data layer based on the spatial coordinates given in the publication), and C for classified by the reviewers based on information available in the publication. For variables denoted with P and D, we used the D-version in our analysis to reduce the heterogeneity in the accuracy reported across studies. See Additional file 4 for a full list of variables extracted from the studies
  2. aVariable added after publication of the protocol
  3. bVariable data source differs from the planned source (i.e., from the reference given in protocol)
  4. cNote that all 19 WorldClim variables were extracted and explored, but here we list only the variables for which results are presented in the text. The variables differ from the protocol, where use of three main PCA axis of variation across these variables was outlined