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Table 1 PECO elements

From: What evidence exists on the possible effects of urban forms on terrestrial biodiversity in western cities? A systematic map protocol

PECO Description
Population All terrestrial species and terrestrial ecosystems except for archaea and bacteria in cities of the temperate biogeographical zone (according to Olson & Dinerstein (1998) classification of biomes: temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, temperate coniferous forests and Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub). Due to resource limitations, we only considered temperate western cities
Exposure All types of urban forms described by any urban descriptor or measure including heterogeneity, fragmentation, housing density, organisation of the urban matrix, urban fabric) and all types of urban features (e.g. size, age of the buildings, materials, urban artefacts). A first list of urban forms and features expected to be found in the literature has been discussed within the scientific committee of BAUM. To provide a frame to this work, the keywords have been categorized into four groups. They are related to urban forms, urban morphology and density, process of urbanization, functions and finally to street furniture. They are described below:
- Urban form: allotment, architecture, boulevard, centre, collective, dwelling, district, historical centre, intra-urban, metropolis, neighbourhood, peri-urban, public green space, road, suburb, urban fabric, wasteland
- Urban morphology: arrangement, block, complexity, connectivity, continuous, disturbance, heterogeneity, dimension, discontinuous, division, fragmentation, heterogeneity, mosaic, shape, structure
Density: compactness, gradient, urbanization level, land cover, land use, housing density
- Urbanization process: urban sprawl, urban renewal, pattern, polycentric development, renaturation
- Urban functions: commercial, residential, industrial
Street furniture: bench, lamppost and pavement
All types of urban forms will be considered and described
Comparator Alternative urban forms or previous urban forms
Outcomes Any descriptors of presence or absence of the population including, but not restricted to, abundance of species, diversity of species, and behaviour of species. Outcomes studied will include: ecosystem services, functional characteristics, functional composition, functional feature, species richness, abundance, amount, assemblage, colonization, dispersion, diversity ecological process, function, habitat, index, management of soil, migration number, population, presence, proportion, population structure, viability
Context All urban areas at the infra-city scale (scale of observation of the urban form)