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Table 1 Eligibility Criteria used to screen articles for inclusion in the systematic map

From: Effects of artificial light on bird movement and distribution: a systematic map

  Eligibility criteria Exclusion criteria
Population Any bird species, including domesticated species  
Exposure/Intervention Anthropogenic light sources, including, but not limited to, point sources of light, illuminated habitat, skyglow, and gas flares Reflected daylight (e.g. mylar tape reflectors, windows)
Filters on natural daylight
Comparator Same site under different lighting conditions
Nearby site at the same time of day with similar habitat type, anthropogenic activity, migration density (if applicable) and weather as the treatment site
Documentation of aggregation, mass landing, mortality, foraging, or other relevant outcomes near artificial light sources without comparator were included in the map and coded as “No Control”
Laboratory experiments that use only one intensity or spectral composition of light within the “light” or “dark” portions of the light cycle
Laboratory experiments that use an artificial photoperiod but do not vary the photoperiod
Outcome Bird density or presence/absence, including (but not limited to) radar observations, visual counts and vocalization counts
Bird mortality
Resource consumption (such as crop damage or aquaculture predation)
Behavioural outcomes directly involving movement through space, including (but not limited to) flight path, flight initiation, diving and flushing
Behavioural response (flushing or immobilization) to spotlights used for capturing birds
Behaviours known to precede movement: orientation, overt reaction distance, alert response (e.g. moving head laterally or vertical, crouching)
Documentation of birds foraging under artificial lights
Habitat use metrics at foraging sites such as feeders (e.g. arrival/departure times, feeder visit rates)
Responses that are not conventionally associated with movement (e.g. hormonal responses)
Behavioural responses that do not include or directly precede movement through space (e.g. preening, dust-bathing, sleep behaviour, vocalizing)
General locomotor activity (e.g. perch-hopping or time spent walking)
Temporal changes in daily or annual activity rhythms (e.g. entering/leaving nest box, migration)
Changes to timing of activities in laboratory experiments (e.g. feeding, drinking)
Total feed consumption in laboratory experiments
Trained responses (e.g. trained to perform a task when a light is on)
Ability to see specific wavelengths (e.g. mate choice or ability to distinguish objects under varying light conditions)
Changes to timing in chick provisioning in field studies