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Table 2 Filters applied for each secondary question and quantity of evidence identified

From: Effects of artificial light on bird movement and distribution: a systematic map

  Aggregation/ mortality Causes of aggregation Deterrence Habitat selection
Orientation Attraction
Population Filters Bird activity during intervention/exposure = flying   Bird activity during intervention/exposure = flying   Bird activity during intervention/exposure ≠ flying
Exposure/ Intervention Filters     Deterrent type = Laser, Spotlight or Beam, Flashing light, UV or near-UV light, Line markers, or Pyrotechnic Continuous/Flashing = Continuous
AND
Deterrent Type ≠ Laser
Comparator Filters      Control design ≠ No Control
Outcome Filters Outcome category = Distribution
OR
Outcome subcategory = flight path characteristics
Outcome subcategory = Orientation behaviour Outcome subcategory = preferences
OR
Outcome = Change in flight direction relative to a light source, Capture of birds in flight, Modeled flight behaviour based on observations of birds in flight, Distance of flight path from light source, or flight altitude
Outcome category = Distribution
OR
Outcome subcategory = Approach or Flee Response or Alert behaviour
OR
Outcome = Change in flight direction relative to a light source, Capture of birds in flight, Modeled flight behaviour based on observations of birds in flight, Distance of flight path from light source, or flight altitude
Outcome subcategory = Preferences, Bird counts, Bird Locations, or Presence of foraging birds
Number of relevant studies 219 38 26 228 88