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Table 9 Counts of Outcomes, Outcome subcategories, and Outcome Categories

From: Effects of artificial light on bird movement and distribution: a systematic map

Outcome category (count) Outcome subcategory (count) Outcome Study count
Alert behaviour (9) Other alert response 6
Overt reaction distance 2
Alert reaction time 1
Approach or flee response
Flying 31
Capture of birds on the ground or water 28
Flush (unspecified) 23
Immobilization 16
Diving 12
Running or walking 10
Unspecified 8
Distance moved 5
Other flee response 3
Swimming 3
Head movement 2
Flight path characteristics (123) Circling, hovering, or other description of "attraction" 77
Observations of bird collisions 50
Altitude 19
Direction 13
Linear/non-linear flight path 12
Velocity 7
Change in flight direction relative to light source 5
Capture of birds in flight 4
Distance of flight path from light source 2
Distance travelled 2
Modeled flight behaviour based on observations of bird locations or distributions 2
Other flight behaviour 2
Orientation behaviour
Ability to orient in migratory direction 32
Ability to locate reward 3
Other orientation behaviour 3
Homing 2
Abundance of species grouped by type 2
Stability 1
Species richness 5
Beta diversity 1
Evolutionary distinctiveness 1
Functional diversity 1
Distribution (372) Bird counts
Abundance or density 101
Presence/absence 40
Bird locations (26) Locations of individual birds 12
Locations of nests 5
Locations of roosts or groups of birds 3
Light exposure of tracked individuals 3
Mean or median light exposure of a species 2
Proximity of dead or injured birds to artificial light sources 1
Counts or presence of dead or injured birds 134
Locations of dead or injured birds 10
Absence of bird deaths or injuries 5
Seabird bycatch 5
Type of mortality observation UA 5
Free choice (time spent in each lighting option) 46
Discrete choice (instantaneous choice among lighting options) 15
Presence of foraging birds (56) Multiple individuals foraging under artificial lights 38
One individual foraging under artificial lights 12
Amount of food consumed 4
Number of foraging events (individuals not distinguished) 3
Arrival or departure time of foraging birds 2
  1. Numbers in parentheses show the number of studies in each outcome category and outcome subcategory