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Table 5 Primary inclusion and exclusion criteria based on title and abstract

From: Strategies for managing spring frost risks in orchards: effectiveness and conditionality—A systematic review protocol

Criteria Inclusion Exclusion
Population All temperate perennial fruit trees of commercial interest (apple, pear, sweet cherry, peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, avocado, lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarine, pomelo, grapevine) Low-height shrubs
Berry plants
Other non-fruit horticulture
Other non-temperate horticulture
Interventions Physical on-site treatments or devices that can be applied in anticipation, during or just after a frost event, like wind machines, sprinklers, foliar applications of chemicals, coverages, modified pruning Management choices like income or crop diversification
Crop breeding
Genetic modifications
Financial insurances
Outcome Measures of ambient temperature Evolution of frost hazards or vulnerability through time and space
Measures of damage on flowers, buds or fruitlets
Evidence on post-harvest conditions
Change in cold hardiness during dormancy
Measures of production
Advance/delay of phenological stages
Comparators Investigations of effectiveness against a control population or variants of the same treatment/device Lack of comparators or other measures of success
Model vs observation
Climate zones Temperate Tropical
Mediterranean Subtropical
Cold climates
Language English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish Any other language
Type of publication Peer-reviewed journal Web page/blog
Organisational report Unpublished communication
Professional journal article
Type of study Field experiment Literature review
Greenhouse experiment Mathematical model
Laboratory experiment Risk assessment studies
Micro meteorological studies to explore the potential for an intervention to function without observations of the intervention itself (i.e. Inversion strength characterisations)