Skip to main content

Table 5 Coral response thresholds (NOAEL/LOAEL) of all studies concerning the effects of deposited sediment on corals

From: Effects of sediment exposure on corals: a systematic review of experimental studies

Coral age class Binary coral response # Treatment groups* (controls included/excluded) # Studies/articles with binary data # Species/genera with binary data NOAEL LOAEL
Concentration (mg/cm2/day) Duration Concentration (mg/cm2/day) Duration
Gametes Reduced fertilization success?
Larvae Larval mortality?
Limited settlement? 54/45 4/4 2/2 1.0 1.0
Juveniles Recruit mortality? 132/87 3/3 4/2 8.3 3 days 8.3 3 days
Adults Reduced P/R ratio? 60/25 5/5 16/15 26.4 2 days 26.4 2 days
Reduced photosynthetic efficiency? 372/249 9/9 20/12 25.0 12 h 25.0 12 h
Local bleaching? 497/352 20/20 52/32 4.9 22 h 4.9 22 h
Reduced growth rate? 55/40 10/10 10/7 38.4 21 days 53.0 21 days
Small tissue necroses? 750/602 21/20 76/39 4.4 22 h 4.9 22 h
Large tissue necroses? 657/522 17/17 75/39 20.8 3 days 20.8 3 days
Total colony mortality? 678/509 24/23 84/46 20.8 1 day 20.8 1 day
Adults ANY MORTALITY?* 827/629 28/27 87/46 4.4 22 h 4.9 22 h
ANY ADVERSE EFFECT?* 1085/783 34/34 101/50 4.9 12 h 4.9 12 h
All ANY MORTALITY?* 965/719 31/30 89/47 4.4 22 h 4.9 22 h
ANY ADVERSE EFFECT?* 1323/943 40/39 102/51 1.0 12 h 1.0 12 h
  1. *A ‘treatment group’ is an experimental unit of corals exposed to the same exposure conditions within a study—these may be control (no sediment exposure) or treatment conditions of differing exposure concentrations and/or durations. Double dashes ‘–’ indicate that data were non-existent or irrelevant. Any adverse effect is defined as any response of a coral individual, colony, or treatment group that may negatively affect a coral’s fitness and/or survival. These adverse effects may include physiological changes (e.g., reduced growth or photosynthetic rates), bleaching, tissue necrosis, and colony mortality. Any mortality is inclusive of death of tissue (small and large necroses) or of the entire coral colony, and thus excludes sublethal coral responses