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Table 8 Summary of LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse-effect level) threshold concentrations and durations of coral exposure to suspended and deposited sediment

From: Effects of sediment exposure on corals: a systematic review of experimental studies

Sediment type Coral response* Threshold concentration Threshold duration
Subadults Adults Subadults Adults
Suspended sediment Any adverse effect 10.0 mg/L 3.2 mg/L 1 h 2 h
Any mortality 30.0 mg/L 3.2 mg/L 2.5 days 14 days
Deposited sediment Any adverse effect 1.0 mg/cm2/day 4.9 mg/cm2/day 3 days 12 h
Any mortality 8.3 mg/cm2/day 4.9 mg/cm2/day 3 days 22 h
  1. Coral responses are distinguished between “any adverse effect” and “any mortality,” which are defined in the table footnotes. Subadults are coral gametes, larvae, and juveniles. Adults are reproductively mature coral colonies. All corals in this review are scleractineans
  2. *Any adverse effect is defined as any response of a coral individual, colony, or treatment group that may negatively affect a coral’s fitness and/or survival. These adverse effects may include physiological changes (e.g., reduced growth or photosynthetic rates), bleaching, tissue necrosis, and colony mortality. Any mortality is inclusive of death of tissue or of the entire coral colony, and thus excludes sublethal coral responses
  3. Threshold is LOAEL, lowest-observed adverse-effect level, based on the presence/absence of coral response