Skip to main content

Table 5 Classification of ecosystem services outcomes in broad and specific categories. Specific categories divide each broad category into main types of output or process [59]

From: Evidence for the impacts of agroforestry on ecosystem services and human well-being in high-income countries: a systematic map

Broad Category Specific category Examples
Provisioning Energy Biomass-based energy sources (plant and animal)
Mechanical energy (animal-based)
Materials Biomass (e.g., Fiber and other materials from plants, and animals for direct use or processing)
Water (Surface or ground water for non-drinking purposes)
Nutrition Biomass (e.g., cultivated crops, reared animals and their outputs, wild plants and animals and their outputs, etc.)
Water (e.g., surface or groundwater for drinking)
Regulation & Maintenance Mediation of waste, toxics, and other nuisances Filtration/sequestration/storage/accumulation/ Mediation of smell/noise/visual impacts
Weed and pest control
Mediation of flows Mass stabilization and control of erosion rates
Hydrological cycle and water flow maintenance
Flood & storm protection
Ventilation and transpiration
Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions Lifecycle maintenance, habitat, and gene pool protection (Pollination and seed dispersal, maintaining nursery populations and habitats)
Biodiversity
Pest and disease control
Soil formation and composition
Water conditions
Atmospheric composition and climate regulation
Cultural Physical and intellectual interactions with environmental settings Physical and experiential interactions (use of plants and animals)
Intellectual and representative interactions (scientific, education, heritage/cultural, aesthetic, etc.)
Spiritual, symbolic, and other interactions with environmental settings Spiritual and/or emblematic (symbolic, sacred, and religious use of plants and animals)
Other cultural outputs (existence, bequest of plants and animals)