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Table 1 Description of metadata and themes to be coded and considered in the systematic map

From: On-site communication measures as a tool in outdoor recreation management: a systematic map protocol

Item Description
Title Published title
Year Year of publication
Date Date of publication
Jounal Journal name
DOI Identification code if available
Authors Author’s records
Abstract Published summary text
Behavior description(s) Authors description of the behavior being targeted:
Behavioral category
(Ham et al. [8], p 10. Roggenbuck [19], p 150–162)
Give the study a category based on the wanted change in behavior (multiple categories can be applied to a single study, but only if it is mentioned by the authors)
1 = Disposing waste properly (e.g. ‘pack in pack out’ or dispose waste in trash cans)
2 = Channeling use (e.g. hiking on designated trails)
3 = Minimizing camping impacts (e.g. not damaging trees or use of designated camping and/or campfire areas)
4 = Respect wildlife (e.g. do not feed or disturb wildlife or maintain safe distance)
5 = Pay fees and comply with regulations (e.g. no collecting or harvesting of what and where it is not allowed, paying fishing license or paying for public goods such as toilets and shelters or paying a national park fee)
6 = Social impacts (e.g. show consideration to other visitors)
7 = Act according to safety measures (e.g. wear proper clothing or staying away from a place because of safety reasons)
8 = Other behavior
Study content Give the study a category based on setting:
1 = Experiment (experimental setting)
2 = Quasi-experiment (experimental, but more adapted to real life conditions)
3 = Observation (real life setting)
Study experimental design Give the study a category based on study design. Several can apply:
1 = Pre- and post-test used
2 = Using a control group
Study measurement Give the study a category based on how the behavioral change was measured (multiple categories can be applied to a single study)
1 = Observation of behavior
2 = Counter
3 = Big data
4 = GPS
5 = Interviews
6 = Focus groups
7 = Thematic qualitative
8 = Intercept survey
9 = Passive survey (e.g. online)
10 = Survey including qualitative components
11 = Assessments of impacts on nature (field survey)
12 = Other methods, explain:
Study design comments Describe the study design in more detail and what the methods described separately:
Study period State number of days the behavior was studied
Sample size Number of respondents—State number of people who got their behavior studied
Targeted population Stated population that is the focus of the behavior(s) (age, gender, local–regional-national, urban–rural etc.)
Population category Give the study a category based on focus population:
1 = Mostly locals
2 = Mostly residents within the country
3 = Mostly foreigners
4 = Mix of different visitors
5 = Not stated
Country State the country in which the study takes place:
Geographical scope Give the study a category for in what region it takes place:
1 = Europe
2 = US and Canada
3 = Latin America
4 = Asia
5 = Africa
6 = Oceania
7 = Not stated
Environment setting category Give the study a category for what setting/ecosystem it takes place:
1 = Forest
2 = Woodland-grassland (Bushland/savannah)
3 = Mountain
4 = Beach
5 = Freshwater (On Lake/river)
6 = Marine (Near/ on the ocean, coral reefs etc.)
7 = Park (open place in a city or town)
8 = Desert
9 = Other setting, please specify:
10 = Not stated
Protected areas Give the study a category if the study has taken place in a protected area:
2 = Taken place in a protected area
1 = Not taken place in a protected area, but similar setting and no big reasons for the results to change drastic if it was conducted in a protected area
0 = Different setting, behavior and/or population than what can appear in protected areas
Protected area category If the category above was rated 2 categorize protection according to IUCN:
1a = Strict Nature Reserve
1b = Wilderness Area
2 = National Park
3 = Natural Monument or Feature
4 = Habitat/Species Management Area
5 = Protected Landscape/Seascape
6 = Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources
7 = Not able to categorize
Theory/framework State the different communication theories/frameworks that have been used to develop the communication measure. If it cannot be found write 0:
Theory/framework category
(Stern 2018, see Table 3.1 p. 22–25 for theories under persuasive communication, p 27–70, p 84–120)
If not given 0 above, give the study a category for what theory/framework it has focused on (several categories can be given if applied):
1 = Norm theory (social norm, norm activation and value-belief-norm)
2 = Cognitive dissonance
3 = Elaboration Likelihood Model
4 = Theory of planned behavior
5 = Self-Determination Theory
6 = Extended Parallel Process Model of Fear Appeals
7 = Motivation Crowding Theory
8 = Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
9 = Identity Theory
10 = Moral Foundations Theory
11 = Frame theory
12 = Meyer’s Culture Map
13 = Trust Theory
14 = Principled Negotiation
15 = Diffusion Theory
16 = Other
Communication measures category Give the study a category based on how the message was communicated:
1 = Written
2 = Oral
Medium written category If the category was rated 1 above give the study a category based on how the message was communicated (can be extended):
1 = Sign
2 = Poster (longer explanation than sign)
3 = Brochure
4 = Digital display
5 = Multimedia/infotainment
Medium oral category If the category was rated 2 above, give the study a category based on how the message was communicated (can be extended):
1 = Person
2 = Soundtrack
3 = multimedia/infotainment
Message focus category
Categories based on persuasive communication theories in Stern 2018, p. 27–70, p. 84–120 and topics focused on in Absher and Bright 2004, p. 117–126 and Heberlein 2012, structural fixes (norms p. 90–112) and cognitive fixes (attitudes, direct experience, identity p. 15–68)
Give the study one or more categories based on what the message is focusing on:
1 = Feelings/emotions (e.g. pride, fear, appreciation, responsibility)
2 = Education/knowledge (e.g. reliable evidence, certainty, give a solution/outcome, consequence, competence, remove barriers)
3 = Activating existing knowledge/experience (e.g. confirmatory thought, direct experience, prior knowledge)
4 = Feed-back (sign pledge, build personal relationships etc.)
5 = Identity (relatedness/relevance/meaningfulness, autonomy, freedom, not shamed about prior experience, important reference group/role models, cultural cognition)
6 = Social (e.g. relationship between people, status is social group, collective, pride, shame)
7 = Environment (sustainable development, climate, biodiversity etc.)
8 = Personal/local/ place-based message: connection between visitor and the site/resource, two-way dialogue
9 = Acknowledgement/reward/benefits
10 = Punishment/sanction/cost of action
11 = Experts/management (source of the message or backing it up, credibility, respect, trust)
13 = Provocation (personally reflection on content and its deeper meanings)
14 = Other, please explain:
Confounding variables identified category State if data was not in accordance with expectations:
1 = Yes (confounding variable)
2 = No
Confounding variables description If the category was rated 1, specify which one
Reasons for unaltered behavior Describe authors’ reasoning for observed unaltered behavior despite tested measures (e.g. context, if you do not have litter to toss), identity, cognitive dissonance, self-justification, undermining credibility, ability to process the message etc.)