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Table 1 Summary table of draft inclusion and exclusion criteria (please refer to following sections and Additional files for details and rationale)

From: What evidence exists on the links between natural climate solutions and climate change mitigation outcomes in subtropical and tropical terrestrial regions? A systematic map protocol





Tropical and subtropical terrestrial ecosystems

Marine, freshwater, coastal, and inundated ecosystems (e.g. peatlands, wetlands,except for mangroves)

Urban and peri-urban settings


Land stewardship interventions that aim to protect, manage, or restore existing natural terrestrial ecosystems

Land stewardship interventions that aim to create or manage new ecosystems (e.g. afforestation, plantation forests, replanting with non-native plants, constructed ecosystems, artificial grasslands, natural/green infrastructure) in non-urban/non-peri-urban areas

Interventions that aim to promote and implement sustainable and/or climate-smart agriculture, grazing, and agroforestry management and practices. Sustainable agricultural intensification within the bounds of climate-smart agriculture intended to reduce deforestation and land conversion

Effectiveness of existing ecosystems (without an intervention)

Hybrid natural/engineered interventions

Effectiveness of complementary interventions (e.g. training, capacity building, governance, equity, incentives, policies, monitoring, and enforcement) without explicit tie to land stewardship intervention

Intensification of forestry and grazing activities—that may be intended to increase productivity while minimizing land use change (switching from one land type to another) or land use expansion

Study type + comparator

Studies that aim to measure or observe change in included outcomes as a result of the intervention

Case studies, case reports, non-experimental, quasi-experimental or observational, and experimental study designs, systematic maps, and reviews

Studies that model or predict change to outcomes as a result of the intervention

Modeling studies, opinions, editorials, non-systematic reviews or maps

Primary outcome

Environmental outcomes directly related to GHG emissions

This includes direct measures of GHG emissions (as expressed as equivalent metric tons of CO2) and carbon storage and sequestration aboveground

Environmental outcomes indirectly related to change in mitigation

This includes intermediate (or “proxy”) outcomes related to changes in aboveground land cover and condition (e.g. change in biophysical characteristics of earth’s surface, including the distribution of vegetation and other aboveground physical features of the land, diversity, survival and growth of habitat forming species) and changes in aboveground land use (e.g. changes in the way that land is used by humans—e.g. land conversion, land sparing)

Studies that only examine changes to socioeconomic outcomes (including downstream impacts from changes to ecosystem service delivery such as productivity, crop yield, fodder) and/or biodiversity/ecosystem outcomes WITHOUT looking at one of the two outcome categories in the column to the left as well

Ecological adaptation and resilience which do not link to the two outcomes to the left

Secondary outcomes

(measured alongside with the primary outcomes above within included studies)

Carbon storage and sequestration belowground which includes changes to soil organic carbon

Land and forest management practice outcomes

Adoption or uptake of land or forest management practices, or agricultural practice or technologies

Socioeconomic outcomes which could include changes to economic and material well-being (incl. Income, jobs), perceived socioeconomic and/or poverty status, safety and security (incl. Vulnerability or risk to impacts of climate change (like floods, droughts, fires, temperature), rights and empowerment, cultural and spiritual well-being, sense of place, food security, health, nutrition, this includes elements of provisioning and cultural ecosystem services

Biological and ecological outcomes which include changes to population abundance, dynamics, range and habitat extent and quality, connectivity, biodiversity. This includes elements of regulating and supporting ecosystem services (nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary productivity, climate, flood, temperature regulation)