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Table 5 Socioeconomic outcomes typology (see Additional File 7 for detailed typology)

From: What evidence exists on the links between natural climate solutions and climate change mitigation outcomes in subtropical and tropical terrestrial regions? A systematic map protocol

Category Definition
Economic well-being This encompasses the living standards of basic life including both economic and material necessities
Economic living standards: Income, employment, employment opportunities, wealth, poverty, savings
Material living standards: Material assets owned, basic infrastructure (electricity, water, telecommunication and transportation), shelter, resource use (this can include sustainable use/harvest)
Health Any component of individual mental or physical health or access to health services
Safety and security Covers any component of physical security (threat to personal body and community sense of safety), and resilience and/or adaptive capacity to respond to changing environments and shocks
Rights and empowerment Structures and processes for decision-making that include both formal and informal rules and ability of individuals and groups to be heard and participate in formal and informal decision-making processes. Includes changes to de jure and de facto bundle of rights to land and resources and ability to exercise, as well as tenure, land, and carbon rights
Education and skills Includes both formal and information education and training outcomes as well as educational infrastructure. Includes changes in awareness of climate change and/or environmental issues
Social capital Includes measures of the networks of relationships among individuals and groups that live and work within a particular society and include relations to 'external' groups (such as foreign implementers) as well as the 'state' (formal government at various scales)
Culture Cultural, societal, and traditional values related to natural resources and nature to an individual, group, and/or community and traditional and Indigenous knowledge, activities, and practices
Agricultural productivity Agricultural productivity is typically measured in crop yield—the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products [67]. We also include measures of crop growth and survival in this category