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Table 5 Socioeconomic outcomes typology (see Additional File 7 for detailed typology)

From: What evidence exists on the links between natural climate solutions and climate change mitigation outcomes in subtropical and tropical terrestrial regions? A systematic map protocol



Economic well-being

This encompasses the living standards of basic life including both economic and material necessities

Economic living standards: Income, employment, employment opportunities, wealth, poverty, savings

Material living standards: Material assets owned, basic infrastructure (electricity, water, telecommunication and transportation), shelter, resource use (this can include sustainable use/harvest)


Any component of individual mental or physical health or access to health services

Safety and security

Covers any component of physical security (threat to personal body and community sense of safety), and resilience and/or adaptive capacity to respond to changing environments and shocks

Rights and empowerment

Structures and processes for decision-making that include both formal and informal rules and ability of individuals and groups to be heard and participate in formal and informal decision-making processes. Includes changes to de jure and de facto bundle of rights to land and resources and ability to exercise, as well as tenure, land, and carbon rights

Education and skills

Includes both formal and information education and training outcomes as well as educational infrastructure. Includes changes in awareness of climate change and/or environmental issues

Social capital

Includes measures of the networks of relationships among individuals and groups that live and work within a particular society and include relations to 'external' groups (such as foreign implementers) as well as the 'state' (formal government at various scales)


Cultural, societal, and traditional values related to natural resources and nature to an individual, group, and/or community and traditional and Indigenous knowledge, activities, and practices

Agricultural productivity

Agricultural productivity is typically measured in crop yield—the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products [67]. We also include measures of crop growth and survival in this category