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Table 1 Meta-regression effects of plot size and number of years with Bt maize cultivation on differences between Bt and non-Bt maize on functional group level

From: Does the growing of Bt maize change abundance or ecological function of non-target animals compared to the growing of non-GM maize? A systematic review

Functional group Records Experiments Articles Intercept Slope
Plot size
 Decomposers 139 73 31 0.46 ± 0.062 (0.34; 0.58) 0.010 ± 0.022 (− 0.032; 0.053)
 Herbivores 490 128 46 0.52 ± 0.033 (0.45; 0.58) − 0.011 ± 0.019 (− 0.047; 0.025)
 Parasitoids 131 82 33 0.57 ± 0.065 (0.44; 0.70) − 0.013 ± 0.029 (− 0.069; 0.043)
 Predators 1056 181 77 0.49 ± 0.022 (0.44; 0.53) 0.005 ± 0.014 (− 0.022; 0.032)
Years Bt maize
 Decomposers 94 45 27 0.47 ± 0.094 (0.28; 0.65) − 0.020 ± 0.081 (− 0.179; 0.139)
 Herbivores 329 91 37 0.46 ± 0.047 (0.37; 0.55) 0.027 ± 0.043 (− 0.058; 0.111)
 Parasitoids 84 58 28 0.49 ± 0.092 (0.31; 0.67) − 0.055 ± 0.087 (− 0.225; 0.115)
 Predators 663 119 65 0.47 ± 0.033 (0.41; 0.53) 0.006 ± 0.034 (− 0.060; 0.072)
  1. Records with any red flag in the critical appraisal were excluded. For effect sizes, the absolute values were used. Omnivores were not analysed because only 9 records were available for this group