Skip to main content


Table 3 The subjects, exposures, comparators, and outcomes of relevance

From: How have carbon stocks in central and southern Africa’s miombo woodlands changed over the last 50 years? A systematic map of the evidence

Relevant subject Relevant exposures Relevant comparators Relevant outcomes
Miombo woodlands: as defined by the presence of Brachystegia, Julbernardia and Isoberlinia species Land use and land use practices on above and below-ground carbon stocks, which include: Energy use (charcoal, fuelwood) Poles (home use) Commercial timber harvesting Agriculture (shifting cultivation, expansion) Livestock (browsing of saplings) Wildlife damage (e.g. elephants) Beekeeping (making of traditional hives) Destructive harvesting of NTFPs (e.g. edible caterpillars, fruits) Protected areas Agroforestry Fire (natural; managed and wild) Rainfall; drought; temperature variability Infrastructure development (roads; mining) Alternative land uses and practices compared either as controlled ‘plots’ (study areas defined in the primary studies) with different land-use strategies set up and analysed at the same time, or before-and-after intervention comparisons on the same plots Any measured change in: Carbon stocks (including plant carbon and soil carbon) Plant biomass (including above and below ground)