The socioeconomic and environmental impacts of wood energy value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic map protocol
- Paolo Omar Cerutti1Email author,
- Phosiso Sola1Email author,
- Audrey Chenevoy2,
- Miyuki Iiyama2,
- Jummai Yila3,
- Wen Zhou1,
- Houria Djoudi1,
- Richard Eba’a Atyi1,
- Denis Jean Gautier1, 4,
- Davison Gumbo1,
- Yannick Kuehl5,
- Patrice Levang1, 6,
- Christopher Martius1,
- Robin Matthews7,
- Robert Nasi1,
- Henry Neufeldt2,
- Mary Njenga2,
- Gillian Petrokofsky8,
- Matthew Saunders7,
- Gill Shepherd9,
- Denis Jean Sonwa1,
- Cecilia Sundberg10 and
- Meine van Noordwijk2
© Cerutti et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 1 December 2014
Accepted: 30 March 2015
Published: 1 June 2015
The vast majority of households in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) depend on wood energy—comprising firewood and charcoal—for their daily energetic needs. Such consumption trends are expected to remain a common feature of SSA’s wood energy production and supply chains, at least in the short- to medium-terms. Notwithstanding its importance, wood energy generally has low priority in SSA national policies. However, the use of wood energy is often considered a key driver of unsustainable management and negative environmental consequences in the humid and dry forests.
To date, unsystematic assessments of the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood energy use have underplayed its significance, thus further hampering policy debates. Therefore, a more balanced approach which considers both demand and supply dynamics is needed. This systematic map aims at providing a comprehensive approach to understanding the role and impacts of wood energy across all regions and aspects in SSA.
The objective of this systematic map is to collate evidence from studies of environmental and socio-economic impacts of wood energy value chains, by considering both demand and supply within SSA. The map questions are framed using a Populations, Exposure, Comparators and Outcomes (PECO) approach. We name the supply and demand of wood energy as the “exposure,” composed of wood energy production, harvesting, processing, and consumption. The populations of interest include both the actors involved in these activities and the forest sites where these activities occur. The comparator is defined as those cases where the same wood energy activities occur with i) available/accessible alternative energy sources, ii) regulatory frameworks that govern the sector and iii) alternative technologies for efficient use. The outcomes of interest encompass both socioeconomic and environmental impacts that can affect more than the populations named above. For instance, in addition to the direct socioeconomic impacts felt by participants in the wood energy value chain, forest dwellers may experience livelihood changes due to forest degradation caused by external harvesters. Moreover, intensified deforestation in one area may concurrently lead to forest regeneration in another.
KeywordsWood energy Woodfuel Charcoal Firewood Value chains Forests Woodlands Sub-Saharan Africa
Global energy demand is projected to increase rapidly in coming years, with population growth and lifestyle changes in developing economies placing ever greater demand on current energy supply grids. This may be particularly true for Africa, where economic development can be directly linked to energy demand: a 1% growth in GDP is projected to require 0.55% increase in energy production . Moreover, Africa constitutes approximately 13% of the world population but consumed only 5.6% of the global energy supply as of 2001 (the latest data available) . Therefore, it is expected that African per-capita energy use (ca. 41% of the global average) is likely to increase with growing trade, changing lifestyles and improving infrastructure .
The number of individuals relying on traditional biomass (millions) as primary source of energy for cooking
Share of populations on biomass (%)
Africa in % of World
Notwithstanding the importance of wood energy for household energy consumption and livelihoods, biomass energy generally has low priority in SSA national policies [7,19]. In fact, the wood energy sector tends to be “indirectly” regulated by a multitude of other sectors (e.g. the forestry codes, energy and land tenure laws). Those regulatory frameworks are indeed important, but the involvement of multiple agencies and ministries leads to overlapping and the unclear division of responsibilities as well as competing taxation [20,21]. Hence, wood energy policies end up having limited scope, regulatory gaps and inconsistencies, weak implementation, and they largely focus on regulatory measures instead of fostering investments for sustainable management of the sector [20,22]. The lack of adapted regulations and implementation also leads to i) states not benefiting from what would be one of the most important sectors in a large number of SSA countries, and ii) numerous forms of informal payments such as bribes, discretionary road charges, etc.
As wood energy can be derived from natural forests, grown in plantations or from integrated on-farm production systems, its production and use is also part of the discourse about the sustainable management of SSA’s dry forests and woodlands. Historically, research has focused on analyses of rates and drivers of deforestation linked to wood energy production (such as charcoal), often considered a key driver of unsustainable use in humid and dry forests [23-26]. The environmental impacts of potential technological and policy innovations as well as future wood energy demand have also been assessed [27,28]. The overarching conclusions of this work, and the narrative partly derived from them, are that wood energy production often has negative consequences for the environment, especially in “depletion hotspots” concentrated in South Asia and East Africa , although there is generally a failure to distinguish between market-oriented, intensive and destructive collection, and the far less devastating impacts of rural collection for local consumption [26,30].
Objective of the review
What are the socio-economic and environmental impacts of wood energy value chains in SSA?
What are the socio-economic and environmental impacts in SSA of wood energy supply under varying regulatory frameworks?
What are the socio-economic and environmental impacts in SSA of wood energy demand under varying regulatory frameworks?
We define “wood energy” as firewood and charcoal in this systematic map.
PECO elements of the systematic map question
Forests, woodlands, and shrublands (natural or planted), or farmlands, agroforests or landscapes consisting of the mixtures of those that supply firewood and charcoal in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (see Additional file 1 for list of SSA countries)
Production, collecting, harvesting, processing, trading and consumption of wood energy
Before or without wood energy production, collection, harvesting, processing, trading or consumption activities
Environmental impacts, including deforestation, forest degradation, forest regeneration, and other changes in tree cover; secondary impacts on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration/carbon stocks, and non-carbon ecosystem services, water flow, erosion/sedimentation, biodiversity
Formal and informal regulatory frameworks that govern wood energy production, collection, harvesting, processing, trading and consumption activities, which include tenure systems, trade, energy, environmental laws and regulations.
Wood energy value chain participants (as specific economic groups): collectors, producers, traders, intermediate and final consumers in SSA
(Note: Production practices can include managed coppice systems, plantation forestry, assisted natural regeneration, and agroforestry)
Before or without substitute or alternative technologies (kilns and cookstoves) that affect demand/supply of wood energy
Socio-economic impacts on wood energy value chain participants, such as changes in employment, assets, income, household pollution, health, based on indicators listed in 
The search strategy for this review aims to retrieve results of both high sensitivity and high specificity to the review question . Defining searches of high specificity, or those that find a larger proportion of relevant studies within search results, without sacrificing the comprehensiveness allowed by broader searches of lower sensitivity, was facilitated by the repeated testing of search strings in the databases Web of Science (WOS) and CAB Abstracts to determine the effects of including or excluding specific words and phrases. Search strings were composed of population, exposure, and location terms derived from the PECOs in section 2, and combined using the following Boolean operators:
(P1 OR P2 OR P3 …) AND (E1 OR E2 OR E3 …) AND (L1 OR L2 OR L3 …), where P stands for population, E for exposure, and L for location terms.
For sources other than the three bibliographic databases, should any individual search yield >10,000 records, outcome terms will be added to the search string to further refine results. Where search engines do not support the use of Boolean operators, we will conduct simplified searches using key population, exposure, and location terms, as well as apply relevant topic filters where available. These will be fully documented for source. The full list of population, exposure, location, and outcome terms can be found in Additional file 1.
Sources of literature
Web of Science (Thomson Reuters)
Oxford Radcliffe Science library (focus on specialist collection of the former Oxford Forestry Institute)
International Information System for Agricultural Science and Technology (Agris), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 
The World Bank 
Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers Library 
Internet search engines
Google Scholar (only the first 500 hits) 
Discussions with subject experts indicated the presence of significant archives of grey literature that would be valuable for inclusion. Some of these will be retrieved from institutional searching (see above). However, in order to capture published and grey literature that may not have been indexed electronically either in the bibliographic databases or institutional databases and website, we will contact subject specialists for additional peer-reviewed and grey literature that they believe to be relevant to answering the review question. A hand-search of the forestry collections of the Bodleian library at the University of Oxford will also be conducted with the help of specialist librariansa.
Searches will be conducted in English. French, Spanish, and Portuguese will be used to search for relevant studies in Google Scholar.
Estimating the comprehensiveness of the search
Initial scoping searches performed on CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, and Scopus yielded c. 5000 potentially relevant studies. Comprehensiveness of the search in the three bibliographic databases will be checked against a reference set of papers of high relevance to the systematic map questions. Searches will be refined until at least 90% of the reference studies are retrieved.
Potential publication biases will be addressed by comparing study results from peer-reviewed journals with those from the grey literature .
Study inclusion criteria
Eligibility criteria are defined in Table 2, and will be applied at the title, abstract and full text screening stages to identify relevant studies for the review and exclude ineligible studies. The main selection rule is to include a study if it meets at least one condition in each of population, exposure, comparator, and outcome criteria. Where relevant comparators are lacking, a study will nonetheless be initially included if it presents relevant outcomes that could help better formulate policy options.
Studies will be excluded if they examine demand for wood energy from outside SSA that is not linked to supply within SSA, if they study other sources of energy or technologies but does not target relevant populations or outcomes as defined above, or if they are review or referencing papers that do not also contain primary data.
Potential effect modifiers and sources of heterogeneity
Temporal and spatial scale
Human population density at local and market-shed scale
GDP, population growth
Type of management (large-scale, industrial vs. smallholders)
Travel distance/time to next market
Level of urbanisation and proximity to urban centres
Type and scale of economic activities
Forest policy framework (categories used, recognition of agroforestry)
Long-term climate change and risk of extreme climatic events
POC, PS, MI, WZ, DGa, and DGu will take part in the study screening process. First, the reviewers will check all retrieved hits for relevance based on titles. Following the first screening, abstracts of the included articles will be read to further determine the suitability of the articles for the review. The included articles will be read in full to determine their suitability for the review. At the beginning of each screening phase, kappa analysis will be undertaken on a sample of 50 articles to ensure that study inclusion criteria are applied consistently. Should the kappa statistic fall below a satisfactory level of agreement (0.70), additional rounds of pilot screening will be conducted until the kappa statistic reaches 0.70 or higher. In cases where reviewers make opposing decisions with regard to inclusion or exclusion of a particular article, a group decision will be made following discussions to reach a consensus.
Study quality assessment
Studies identified within included articles will be assessed according to the quality assessment criteria by the review team. We recognise the potential for quality assessment to be somewhat subjective because of the breadth of our review question. In order to minimise subjectivity, an initial set of ten studies will be assessed to determine inter-reviewer agreement on the application of the quality criteria. These criteria include the relevance, reporting standard and experimental design of each study, used to assess susceptibility to bias and rigor of reporting; these criteria are further detailed below. Two reviewers from the review team will appraise the quality of all included studies and where discrepancies exist on the application of the assessment criteria, they will be harmonized by the team of reviewers.
Clarity of study site selection criteria – Is the choice of study site selection clear and justified? This decision will be based on the explanations provided by study authors regarding a study site’s relevance in answering research questions, and is particularly important for the selection of case and control sites in terms of their comparability.
Sources of data – Are the sources of data reliable, complete and available in the article? The reliability of data will be assessed based on the authors’ acknowledgement of potential biases and if triangulation is performed to ascertain research results.
Methods – Are methods clear and replicable? Is the sampling frequency, duration of study, and sample size (e.g. extrapolations, generalizations) appropriate for answering the question(s) posed by the study?
Study design – Is the study design clearly reported: Before-After (single time or time series), Control–Impact, Before-After-Control–impact, asymmetrical designs (multiple controls for which the data are not paired in time.
We will test these quality criteria on key references, which will then be refined further during the process of data extraction and in consultation with the advisory group.
Data extraction and presentation
Data to be included in the systematic map database
Nature of evidence
Sources of evidence (journal types and subjects, grey literature)
Type of study (socio economic, environmental)
Representativeness and coverage of evidence
Geographic coverage (scope, location, scale)
Focus (firewood, charcoal, other related energy sources)
Populations (value chain participants, including sample sizes, gender, and land tenure; forests, including sample sizes, forest type, and agro-ecological zone)
Measure of changes/ impacts
Nature of outcomes reported (increase, decrease, no change/neutral) for the following indicators:
Socio-economic outcomes (income, employment, asset, equity, costs, profit)
Environmental outcomes (deforestation, forest area, degradation, biodiversity, C stocks regeneration, ecosystem services)
List of outcomes that are not comparative in nature, but relevant to answer the review questions
Regulatory framework described (trade, energy, environment)
Where insufficient data are provided, we will contact authors to acquire additional data. To present the evidence base, we will provide a databaseb and supporting narrative of all the relevant articles that have been reviewed, summarising and presenting descriptive statistics in tables, graphs and charts on quantity, type, focus, study location, and target population of reviewed articles. We will further conduct descriptive analysis on outcomes as they relate to the target population.
The results of the systematic map will be published as a CEE Systematic Map with an associated searchable database as well as summarised in a CIFOR policy brief. We will also endeavour to present the outcomes of the map at relevant forums/conferences, and to disseminate results through the advisory group and relevant working groups to inform decision makers in government, civil society, and research and development organisations.
aThe Bodleian library was an international repository of forestry literature following the creation of the Imperial (later Oxford) Forestry Institute, with a focus on tropical forestry and silviculture, and is therefore considered to be an important source of grey literature http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/science/resources/ofis.
bAn MSAccess© database will be provided.
- Kebede E, Kagochi J, Jolly CM. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa. Ener Econ. 2010;32:532–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). Sustainable Energy Consumption in Africa. 2004.Google Scholar
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The energy access situation in developing countries: A review focusing on the least developed countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. 2009.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA): World energy outlook. Paris; 2006.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA): Bioenergy – A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report. 2010.Google Scholar
- Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Dobie P, Njenga M, Ndegwa G, Jamnadass R. The potential of agroforestry in the provision of sustainable woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain. 2014;6:138–47.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mwampamba TH, Ghilardi A, Sander K, Chaix KJ. Dispelling common misconceptions to improve attitudes and policy outlook on charcoal in developing countries. Ener Sust Dev. 2013;17:75–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arnold JEM, Kohlin G, Persson R, Shepherd G: Fuelwood revisited: what has changed in the last decade? Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR 2003:35.Google Scholar
- Girard P. Charcoal production and use in Africa: what future? Unasylva. 2002;53:30–5.Google Scholar
- Bailis R, Ezzati M, Kammen DM. Mortality and greenhouse gas impacts of biomass and petroleum energy futures in Africa. Science. 2005;308:98–103.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chidumayo E, Masaileti I, Ntalasha H, Kalumiana O. Charcoal Potential in Southern Africa (CHAPOSA). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute; 2001.Google Scholar
- Arnold JEM, Köhlin G, Persson R. Woodfuels, livelihoods, and policy interventions: changing perspectives. World Dev. 2006;34:596–611.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beukering van P, Kahyarara G, Massey E, di Prima S, Hess S, Geofrey V: Optimization of the charcoal chain in Tanzania. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit; 2007:44.Google Scholar
- Gumbo D, Moombe KB, Kabwe G, Ojanen M, Ndhlovu E, Sunderland TCH, et al. Dynamics of the charcoal and indigenous timber trade in Zambia: A scoping study in Eastern, Northern and Northwestern provinces. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); 2013.Google Scholar
- Karekezi S, Majoro L. Improving modern energy services for Africa’s urban poor. Energ Pol. 2002;30:1015–28.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knöpfle M. A study on charcoal supply in Kampala. 2004.Google Scholar
- Mugo F, Poulstrup E: Assessment of potential approaches to charcoal as a sustainable source of income in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. Danida and RELMA report 2003:72.Google Scholar
- Brew-Hammond A, Kemausuor F. Energy for all in Africa—to be or not to be?! Curr Opin Environ Sustain. 2009;1:83–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Owen M, der Plas R, Sepp S. Can there be energy policy in Sub-Saharan Africa without biomass? EnerSust Dev. 2013;17:146–52.Google Scholar
- Sander K, Gros C, Peter C. Enabling reforms: analyzing the political economy of the charcoal sector in Tanzania. EnerSust Dev. 2013;17:116–26.Google Scholar
- Schure J, Ingram V, Sakho-Jimbira MS, Levang P, Wiersum KF. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central-and West Africa. Ener Sust Dev. 2013;17:95–105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- FAO. Criteria and indicators for sustainable woodfuels, vol. 160. 2010.Google Scholar
- Chidumayo EN. Forest degradation and recovery in a miombo woodland landscape in Zambia: 22 years of observations on permanent sample plots. For Ecol Manag. 2013;291:154–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luoga E, Witkowski E, Balkwill K. Economics of charcoal production in miombo woodlands of eastern Tanzania: some hidden costs associated with commercialization of the resources. Ecol Econ. 2000;35:243–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mwampamba TH. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability. Energ Pol. 2007;35:4221–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chidumayo EN, Gumbo DJ. The environmental impacts of charcoal production in tropical ecosystems of the world: a synthesis. EnerSust Dev. 2013;17:86–94.Google Scholar
- Namaalwa J, Hofstad O, Sankhayan P. Achieving sustainable charcoal supply from woodlands to urban consumers in Kampala, Uganda. Int For Rev. 2009;11:64–78.Google Scholar
- Raunikar R, Buongiorno J, Turner JA, Zhu S. Global outlook for wood and forests with the bioenergy demand implied by scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Forest Pol Econ. 2010;12:48–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bailis R, Drigo R, Ghilardi A, Masera O. The carbon footprint of traditional woodfuels. Nat Clim Change. 2015;5:266–72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boucher D, Elias P, Lininger K, May-Tobin C, Roquemore S, Saxon E. The Root of the Problem - What’s Driving Tropical Deforestation Today? Union of Concerned Scientists - Tropical Forest and Climate Initiative. 2011.Google Scholar
- Adam J. Improved and more environmentally friendly charcoal production system using a low-cost retort–kiln (Eco-charcoal). Renew Energy. 2009;34:1923–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zulu LC. The forbidden fuel: charcoal, urban woodfuel demand and supply dynamics, community forest management and woodfuel policy in Malawi. Energ Pol. 2010;38:3717–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pullin AS, Bangpan M, Dalrymple S, Dickson K, Haddaway NR, Healey JR, et al. Human well-being impacts of terrestrial protected areas. Environ Evid. 2013;2:19.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- International Information System for Agricultural Science and Technology [http://agris.fao.org/]
- Research & Publications [http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage.html]
- UNEP Knowledge Repository [http://www.unep.org/publications/]
- Research & Outlook [http://www.worldbank.org/en/research]
- CGIAR Library [http://www.cgiar.org/resources/cgiar-library/]
- Google Scholar [http://scholar.google.com/]
- Leimu R, Koricheva J. What determines the citation frequency of ecological papers? Trends Ecol Evol. 2005;20:28–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.